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Demography and Labor Force

Demography and Labor Force

Demography and Labor Force


Turkey is located in the GMT+2 time zone that enables it to communicate with both eastern and western countries in the same working day.


Turkey’s area is 783,562.38 km2 and is divided into seven geographical regions: the Marmara, the Aegean, the Mediterranean, Southeastern Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Central Anatolia, and the Black Sea. It is surrounded by four seas: the Mediterranean Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Sea of Marmara, and the Black Sea.


Turkey has a total population of 77.7 million, with half of that under the age of 30.7.

Population-Age Group Pyramid (2014)


Source: Turkish Statistical Institute

Labor Force

Turkey’s population of 77.7 million has a labor force of over 28.1 million people. Turkey is ranked as the 4thlargest labor force in relation to EU countries.

Labor Force (in millions) – 2013



Source: Turkish Statistical Institute and IMD, May 2014

Turkey’s young population is an important contributor to labor force growth and has contributed to Turkey’s rank over its competitors.

The distribution of the workforce amongst many diverse sectors reflects the wealth of opportunities offered to investors. Turkey is highly competitive in terms of labor cost and productivity. It has posted consistent growth in labor productivity, together with a decreasing trend in real unit wages.

Productivity and Real Unit Wages Index in Industry (Per Worker; 2010=100)


Source: Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat)

The Turkish labor market is one of the best in the world thanks to qualifications, skills, dedication, and the motivation it offers.

Availability of Qualified Labor Force Scores 2014
  Skilled Labor Qualified Engineers Competent

Senior Managers

IT Skills Average


Turkey 5.96 7.08 6.00 7.42 6.6
Czech Rep. 5.78 6.22 5.20 7.60 6.2
Romania 5.94 6.70 5.17 6.70 6.1
Poland 5.42 5.58 5.15 7.54 5.9
China 5.02 5.96 4.83 6.92 5.7
Hungary 4.72 6.77 4.12 7.00 5.6
Bulgaria 3.09 3.89 2.73 7.20 4.2

Source: IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2014

Scores (0: Not Available, 10: Available)

Turkey has a young, dynamic work force and its strong work ethic is an important part of Turkey’s work culture. The workplace, as an institution, is cherished in Turkey that allows individuals to utilize their skills and for self-advancement. The labor force’s dedication to work is shown via Turkey’s high productivity, low absenteeism, and its status as one of the countries with the highest annual working hour rates.


  • More than 4.6 million students in tertiary education
  • Approximately 610,000 graduates from universities per year
  • World-class engineering education

Number of Students Enrolled in Tertiary Education – 2012


Source: Eurostat

Number of Students Enrolled in the Fields of Engineering, Manufacturing & Construction (Tertiary Education) – 2012


Source: Eurostat 

Number of Graduates in the Fields of Engineering, Manufacturing & Construction (Tertiary Education) – 2012


Source: Eurostat


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Akbatı Residence,
34538 Esenyurt/İstanbul
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